“Adjectives are the “enemy” of the noun.”



 “If you catch an adjective, kill it.”

Mark Twain



I went quickly to the kitchen.  à I rushed to the kitchen.

 If you can’t say it, you can’t feel it.


Feral children 


1.         Sally looks frightened out of her wits. Do you know what happened to her?

            ▶︎         She says she saw a snake under her desk.

You frightened me out of my wits! 


I've never been so scared in all my life: frightened, afraid, fearful, startled, nervous, panicky, alarmed, intimidated; terrified, ★petrified, terrorized, horrified, unnerved, ★panic-stricken/-struck, terror-stricken/-struck, horror-stricken/-struck, with one's heart in one's mouth, scared stiff, scared/frightened out of one's wits, scared witless, scared/frightened to death, chilled to the bone/marrow, in a cold sweat; informal spooked, scarified; vulgar slang scared shitless.


2.         I'm _____ that the bus is going to be late.       

            ▶︎         Don't worry. It's almost never late.


worried (気持ち、感情的)

concerned(business, 知的な)

I’m wondering if the bus is going to be late. 




1 they ran away because they were afraid: frightened, scared, terrified, fearful, petrified, scared witless, scared to death, terror-stricken, terror-struck, frightened out of one's wits, scared out of one's wits, shaking in one's shoes, shaking like a leaf; intimidated, alarmed, panicky; faint-hearted, cowardly; informal scared stiff, in a cold sweat, spooked; chicken; archaic afeared, affrighted. ANTONYMS  brave, confident.



There’s a festival tomorrow. I’m really anxious. 

I’m anxious to go to the festival tomorrow. 


He’s suspicious.  Don’t trust him.

He’s suspicious. He knows we’re trying to trick him. 



3.         If we're late, Mr. Green is going to be _____ .            

            ▶︎         If we take a taxi, we'll be on time.


Vivienne got angry: ★★irate, ★★★mad, ★annoyed, ★cross, vexed, ★★irritated, indignant, ★irked; ★★★furious, ★★★enraged, ★★★★infuriated, in a temper, incensed, raging, fuming, seething, beside oneself, choleric, outraged; livid, apoplectic; informal hot under the collar, up in arms, in high dudgeon, foaming at the mouth, doing a slow burn, steamed up, in a lather, fit to be tied, seeing red; sore, bent out of shape, ticked off, teed off, pissed off, PO'd; literary wrathful; archaic wroth.  ANTONYMSpleased.




4.         The noise from the construction is _____ .    

            ▶︎         The project will be finished within a couple of days.


what are these annoying little insects? irritating, ★★infuriating, ★★exasperating, ★maddening, trying, tiresome, troublesome, bothersome, nettlesome, obnoxious, irksome, vexing, cursed, vexatious, galling; informal ★★★aggravating, pesky; informal, dated cursed.






a pain in the neck



5.         Nancy's presentation to the investors was _____.      

            ▶︎         She must be disappointed with herself.



★dry (speech, presentation)


a boring one-man play: ★★tedious (job)

, dull, monotonous, repetitive, unrelieved, unvaried, unimaginative, uneventful; characterless, featureless, colorless, lifeless, insipid, uninteresting, unexciting, uninspiring, unstimulating, uninvolving; unreadable, unwatchable; jejune, flat, bland, dry, stale, tired, banal, lackluster, stodgy, vapid, monochrome, dreary, humdrum, mundane; mind-numbing, wearisome, tiring, tiresome, irksome, trying, frustrating; informal deadly, ho-hum, dullsville, dull as dishwater, plain-vanilla.


He’s so poor.  = He doesn’t have any money.

What a poor guy. à  I feel sorry for him.

He doesn’t have any money. VS He has no money.  



6.         We had a/an _____ day.         

            ▶︎         Everything that could go wrong went wrong.




a terrible crime | terrible injuries: dreadful, ★awful, appalling, horrific, horrifying, horrible, horrendous, atrocious, abominable, deplorable, egregious, abhorrent, frightful, shocking, hideous, ghastly, grim, dire, unspeakable, gruesome, monstrous, sickening, heinous, vile; serious, grave, acute; informal ★★★godawful; formal grievous. ANTONYMS  minor, negligible.






7.         The view from your office is _____.    

            ▶︎         We can see all the way to the ocean from here.



Spectacular (big and beautiful)


★incredible (most good)

He did an incredible job. (GREAT)

He did incredibly poor on the test. (bad) 

★picturesque (more in writing)


a wonderful vacation in Europe: marvelous, magnificent, superb, glorious, sublime, lovely, delightful; informal super, great, fantastic, terrific, tremendous, sensational, incredible, fabulous, fab, out of this world, awesome, magic, wicked, far out, killer, brilliant, peachy, dandy, neat, swell.ANTONYMS  awful.


Very   Really

I’m really tired.

I read a very interesting book about planets.

He’s pretty smart.  He’s pretty stupid.

We got in a fight.

We got in a good fight.

There’s a good / considerable chance that he will die. 

This project will take a good two weeks. 


He has a lot of money.

He has a considerable amount of money.

He has money.  

He has the money, but he doesn’t have the looks. 


(so) nice




8.         Why is ABC planning on building a/an _____ factory? 

Why is ABC planning a huge factory? 

Why is ABC planning on building a huge factory?


We’re planning an interesting presentation (for you). 

We’re planning on an interesting presentation (from you).  (expecting)






            ▶︎         They expect their sales to double.

big, large

(such a) huge



 a big building: large, sizable, substantial, great, huge, immense, enormous, extensive, colossal, massive, mammoth, vast, tremendous, gigantic, giant, monumental, mighty, gargantuan, elephantine, titanic, mountainous, Brobdingnagian; towering, tall, high, lofty; outsize, oversized; goodly; capacious, voluminous, spacious; king-size(d), man-size, family-size(d), economy-size(d); informal jumbo, whopping, mega, humongous, monster, astronomical, ginormous; formal commodious. ANTONYMS  small, little.





9.         I'm having a/an _____ problem with my computer.    

▶︎         That kind of computer is always breaking down.

serious, major, difficult, critical

significant / insignificant


It’s a significant problem.

The difference is not significant. 


 a serious serious decisions: important, significant, consequential, momentous, weighty, far-reaching, major, grave; urgent, pressing, crucial, critical, vital, life-and-death, high-priority. ANTONYMS unimportant, trivial.



I got in trouble (with…the law / the police / my wife / my boss).  = 怒られた

You’re going to get in trouble.


I’m having trouble with my computer. 

I’m having trouble with my boss. 

I’m having trouble finding an accountant. 

Stay out of trouble!


He’s having trouble with his computer. = He’s having a problem with his computer.


He’s having trouble with the law / the police. 

XHe’s having a problem with the law / the police.


▲      troubles 


I made a reservation…

I made reservations…for one person for one night. 


V + N

“It’s usually best if you can save ink.”  

decide  -  make a decision

very hungry -> starving

very big -> huge












10.       Richard's presentation was boring / dry , but it was informative.        

            ▶︎         I tried to stay awake, but it was difficult.



11.       Everyone was angry except for Sam. He looked _____.        

            ▶︎         I've known him for a long time, but he never gets upset.

composed (speeches / appearance, including clothes) 

Let me compose myself.  (The wind is really strong today.) 

★      serene

He looks calm, but he’s really about to explode.

XHe looks serene, but he’s really about to explode.


 she seemed very calm: serene, tranquil, relaxed, unruffled, unperturbed, unflustered, untroubled; equable, even-tempered; placid, unexcitable, unemotional,; composed, 'calm, cool, and collected', coolheaded, nonconfrontational, self-possessed; informalunflappable, unfazed, nonplussed. ANTONYMS  excited, nervous, upset.



12.       Please be _____ when talking to Martha.        

            ▶︎         She gets angry about the smallest things.


★      on guard


Don’t worry. I will be on guard. 


be careful when you go up the stairs: cautious, heedful, alert, attentive, watchful, vigilant, wary, on guard, circumspect. ANTONYMS  careless.




13.       Mary has a lot of money, but she's _____.     

            ▶︎         You're right, but that's why she's wealthy.

GOOD:  tight with her money

GOOD:  thrifty

GOOD:  economical


BAD:  stingy

BAD:  tightwad




a very economical shopper: thrifty, provident, prudent, sensible, frugal, sparing, abstemious; mean, parsimonious, penny-pinching, miserly, stingy.  ANTONYMSspendthrift.


14.       Henry's desk is always _____.            

            ▶︎         He spends most of his time out of the office.




★★Neat and orderly

★spick and span,  (not dirty at all) 



 a tidy room: neat, neat and tidy, orderly, well ordered, in (good) order, well kept, shipshape, in apple-pie order, immaculate, ★spick and span, uncluttered, straight, trim, spruce. ANTONYMS messy.




15.       The cause of the problem is _____.   

            ▶︎         I'm afraid I don't know what it is.



There is cause for concern. 




★      baffling

I don’t know.  = I’m baffled. 


1 he vanished in mysterious circumstances: puzzling, strange, peculiar, curious, funny, queer, odd, weird, bizarre, mystifying, inexplicable, baffling, perplexing, incomprehensible, unexplainable, unfathomable. ANTONYMS  straightforward.


I honestly don’t know.

I really don’t know.

I have no idea.

X Where is George? X Where is my money?

Do you have any idea where George is?

Do you have any idea where my money is?


That restaurant is very hospitable.

XThat restaurant is very polite.

The service at that restaurant is very (cold and) polite.

The service at that restaurant is very friendly. 


I got a polite letter.  (= I got a rejection letter.)





16.       It's _____, so let's take a taxi.

            ▶︎         I think I'll walk. I like this kind of weather.

rainy, wet


hot and muggy

blistering hot


nice and chilly

nice and sour

nice and bitter

nice and salty

nice and sweet


nice and fatty


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